EFFECTS OF UPPER EXTREMITY PLYOMETRIC TRAINING ON THROWING VELOCITY AND SHOULDER ROTATOR STRENGTH IN FEMALE HANDBALL PLAYERS
Celal GENÇOĞLU1, O ATEŞ2, İ AKSU3, Selmin GÜLBAHAR4, Ebru ŞAHİN4, Cem BEDİZ3
1Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, Spor Bilimleri ve Teknolojisi Yüksek Okulu, İzmir
2Marmara Üniversitesi, Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Yüksek Okulu, İstanbul
3Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Fizyoloji Anabilim Dalı, İzmir
4Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Fiziksel Tıp Rehabilitasyon Anabilim Dalı, İzmir
Keywords: Handball, plyometric training, isokinetics, shoulder rotators, throwing velocity
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of upper extremity plyometrics on throwing velocity and isokinetic strength of shoulder rotators in handball players. Twenty female handball players (age 24.0 ± 2.8 yr, weight 65.2 ± 7.8 kg, height 171.7 ± 6.9 cm) volunteered to participate in the study. Anthropometric measurements, VO2max, standing and three-step throwing velocities, and shoulder internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) concentric isokinetic peak torque at 90-300°/s speeds were assessed before and following six weeks of plyometric training period. Whereas the plyometric group (PG, n=10) performed plyometric exercises twice a week in addition to their daily training for six weeks, the control group (CG, n=10) performed only the regular training. Standing and three-step throwing velocities significantly (p<0.05) increased in both groups, with no significant improvement differences among groups. As isokinetic peak torques of the dominant arm for IR at 300°/s significantly increased (p<0.05) in both groups, so did the isokinetic peak torque of the dominant arm for ER at 300°/s in the CG (p<0.05). There were significant correlations between standing throwing velocity and peak torques for both IR at 90°/s and 300°/s (r=0.56, p=0.010 and r=0.52, p=0.018, respectively). Peak torque for ER at 90°/s and three-step throwing velocity were also significantly correlated (r=0.49, p=0.027). Six weeks of plyometric training produced no additional improvement on throwing velocities and isokinetic shoulder rotators in female handball players, despite being useful as a sports specific alternative exercise aiming throwing activities.